Veterans and Agent Orange: Update 2014

Books on Agent Orange Dioxin and the Vietnam War

Veterans and Agent Orange: Update 2014

By: National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine; Institute of Medicine; Board on the Health of Select Populations; Committee to Review the Health Effects in Vietnam Veterans of Exposure to Herbicides (Tenth Biennial Update)

Publisher: National Academy Press

Pages: 1114 pages

Publication: Hardcover 10 March 2016



ISBN: 978-0-309-38066-9 

SubjectsHealth and Medicine — Military and Veterans; Conflict and Security Issues — Military and Defense Studies

From 1962 to 1971, the US military sprayed herbicides over Vietnam to strip the thick jungle canopy that could conceal opposition forces, to destroy crops that those forces might depend on, and to clear tall grasses and bushes from the perimeters of US base camps and outlying fire-support bases.

Mixtures of 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D), 2,4,5-trichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4,5-T), picloram, and cacodylic acid made up the bulk of the herbicides sprayed. The main chemical mixture sprayed was Agent Orange, a 50:50 mixture of 2,4-D and 2,4,5-T. At the time of the spraying, 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD), the most toxic form of dioxin, was an unintended contaminant generated during the production of 2,4,5-T and so was present in Agent Orange and some other formulations sprayed in Vietnam.

Because of complaints from returning Vietnam veterans about their own health and that of their children combined with emerging toxicologic evidence of adverse effects of phenoxy herbicides and TCDD, the National Academy of Sciences was asked to perform a comprehensive evaluation of scientific and medical information regarding the health effects of exposure to Agent Orange, other herbicides used in Vietnam, and the various components of those herbicides, including TCDD. Updated evaluations were conducted every two years to review newly available literature and draw conclusions from the overall evidence. Veterans and Agent Orange: Update 2014 is the final and cumulative report of the series.


Front Matter i-xxx
Summary 1-18
1 Introduction 19-36
2 Evaluating the Evidence 37-64
3 Exposure to the Herbicides Used in Vietnam 65-92
4 Information Related to Biologic Plausibility 93-132
5 Epidemiologic Studies: Compendium of New Publications 133-144
6 Epidemiologic Studies: Background on Multiply Referenced Populations 145-262
7 Immune-System Disorders 263-286
8 Cancers 287-654
9 Effects on Veterans’ Fertility and Reproductive Success 655-698
10 Effects on Veterans’ Descendants 699-742
11 Neurologic Disorders 743-780
12 Cardiovascular and Metabolic Outcomes 781-840
13 Other Chronic Health Outcomes 841-902
14 Conclusions and Recommendations 903-926
References 927-1046
Appendix A: Issues Raised by the Public and Agendas of Public Meetings Held by the Committee and Other Written Submissions to the Committee 1047-1056
Appendix B: Short-Term Adverse Health Responses 1057-1066
Appendix C: Clarification of Cancer Groupings Used in Reporting Results, with Correspondence to National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health Cause-of-Death Codes and International Classification of Diseases Codes for Cancers 1067-1076
Appendix D: Committee and Staff Biographies

Source: NAS

RELATED: Veterans and Agent Orange: Update 2000

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